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Synaptic architecture of remote memory recall

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in the formation and retrieval of memories. The PFC circuits exhibit diversity in synaptic properties, enabling them to perform precise computations in a fool-proof manner that result in normal behavioural output. Neurexins and neurexin interacting proteins, including cerebellins play crucial role in determining synapse specificity. One member of the Cerebellin family, Cerebellin-4 (Cbln4) is enriched in the PFC. We show that Cbln4 in the PFC mediates long-term storage of memories. Deletion of Cbln4 in the PFC diminishes recall of remote contextual memory but not recall of recently formed memories. At the synapses, loss of Cbln4 leads to reduced numbers of GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses.